Stackless-Python C-API

Note

Some switching functions have a variant with the same name, but ending on “_nr”. These are non-recursive versions with the same functionality, but they might avoid a hard stack switch. Their return value is ternary, and they require the caller to return to its frame, properly. All three different cases must be treated.

Ternary return from an integer function:

value meaning action
-1 failure return NULL
1 soft switched return Py_UnwindToken
0 hard switched return Py_None

Ternary return from a PyObject * function:

value meaning action
NULL failure return NULL
Py_UnwindToken soft switched return Py_UnwindToken
other hard switched return value

Stackless-Python provides the following C functions. Include <stackless_api.h>.

Tasklets

PyTaskletObject *PyTasklet_New(PyTypeObject *type, PyObject *func)

Return a new tasklet object. type must be derived from PyTasklet_Type or NULL. func must be a callable object or NULL or Py_None. If func is NULL or Py_None you must set it later with PyTasklet_BindEx().

int PyTasklet_Setup(PyTaskletObject *task, PyObject *args, PyObject *kwds)

Binds a tasklet function to parameters, making it ready to run and inserts in into the runnables queue. Returns 0 if successful or -1 in the case of failure.

int PyTasklet_BindEx(PyTaskletObject *task, PyObject *func, PyObject *args, PyObject *kwargs)

Binds a tasklet to a function and/or to parameters, making it ready to run. This is the C equivalent to method tasklet.bind(). The arguments func, args and kwargs are optional and may be NULL or Py_None. Returns 0 if successful or -1 in the case of failure.

int PyTasklet_BindThread(PyTaskletObject *task, unsigned long thread_id)

Binds a tasklet function to a thread. This is the C equivalent to method tasklet.bind_thread(). Returns 0 if successful or -1 in the case of failure.

int PyTasklet_Run(PyTaskletObject *task)

Forces task to run immediately. Returns 0 if successful, and -1 in the case of failure.

int PyTasklet_Run_nr(PyTaskletObject *task)

Forces task to run immediately, soft switching if possible. Returns 1 if the call soft switched, 0 if the call hard switched and -1 in the case of failure.

int PyTasklet_Switch(PyTaskletObject *task)

Forces task to run immediately. The previous tasklet is paused. Returns 0 if successful, and -1 in the case of failure.

int PyTasklet_Switch_nr(PyTaskletObject *task)

Forces task to run immediately, soft switching if possible. The previous tasklet is paused. Returns 1 if the call soft switched, 0 if the call hard switched and -1 in the case of failure.

int PyTasklet_Remove(PyTaskletObject *task)

Removes task from the runnables queue. Be careful! If this tasklet has a C stack attached, you need to either resume running it or kill it. Just dropping it might give an inconsistent system state. Returns 0 if successful, and -1 in the case of failure.

int PyTasklet_Insert(PyTaskletObject *task)

Insert task into the runnables queue, if it isn’t already there. If it is blocked or dead, the function returns -1 and a RuntimeError is raised.

int PyTasklet_RaiseException(PyTaskletObject *self, PyObject *klass, PyObject *args)

Raises an instance of the klass exception on the self tasklet. klass must be a subclass of Exception. Returns 1 if the call soft switched, 0 if the call hard switched and -1 in the case of failure.

Note

Raising TaskletExit on a tasklet can be done to silently kill it, see PyTasklet_Kill().

int PyTasklet_Throw(PyTaskletObject *self, int pending, PyObject *exc, PyObject *val, PyObject *tb)

Raises (exc, val, tb) on the self tasklet. This is the C equivalent to method tasklet.throw(). Returns 1 if the call soft switched, 0 if the call hard switched and -1 in the case of failure.

int PyTasklet_Kill(PyTaskletObject *self)

Raises TaskletExit on tasklet self. This should result in task being silently killed. (This exception is ignored by tasklet_end and does not invoke main as exception handler.) Returns 1 if the call soft switched, 0 if the call hard switched and -1 in the case of failure.

int PyTasklet_KillEx(PyTaskletObject *self, int pending)

Raises TaskletExit on tasklet self. This is the C equivalent to method tasklet.kill(). Returns 1 if the call soft switched, 0 if the call hard switched and -1 in the case of failure.

int PyTasklet_GetAtomic(PyTaskletObject *task)

Returns 1 if task is atomic, otherwise 0.

int PyTasklet_SetAtomic(PyTaskletObject *task, int flag)

Returns 1 if task is currently atomic, otherwise 0. Sets the atomic attribute to the logical value of flag.

int PyTasklet_GetIgnoreNesting(PyTaskletObject *task)

Returns 1 if task ignores its nesting level when choosing whether to auto-schedule it, otherwise 0.

int PyTasklet_SetIgnoreNesting(PyTaskletObject *task, int flag)

Returns the existing value of the ignore_nesting attribute for the tasklet task, setting it to the logical value of flag. If true, the tasklet may be auto-scheduled even if its nesting_level is > 0.

int PyTasklet_GetBlockTrap(PyTaskletObject *task)

Returns 1 if task is designated as not being allowed to be blocked on a channel, otherwise 0.

void PyTasklet_SetBlockTrap(PyTaskletObject *task, int value)

Returns 1 if task was already designated as not being allowed to be blocked on a channel, otherwise 0. This attribute is set to the logical value of value.

PyObject *PyTasklet_GetFrame(PyTaskletObject *task)

Returns the current frame that task is executing in, or NULL

int PyTasklet_IsMain(PyTaskletObject *task)

Returns 1 if task is the main tasklet, otherwise 0.

int PyTasklet_IsCurrent(PyTaskletObject *task)

Returns 1 if task is the current tasklet, otherwise 0.

int PyTasklet_GetRecursionDepth(PyTaskletObject *task)

Return the current recursion depth of task.

int PyTasklet_GetNestingLevel(PyTaskletObject *task)

Return the current nesting level of task.

int PyTasklet_Alive(PyTaskletObject *task)

Returns 1 if task is alive (has an associated frame), otherwise 0 if it is dead.

int PyTasklet_Paused(PyTaskletObject *task)

Returns 1 if task is paused, otherwise 0. A tasklet is paused if it is alive, but not scheduled or blocked on a channel.

int PyTasklet_Scheduled(PyTaskletObject *task)

Returns 1 if task is scheduled, otherwise 0. In the context of this function a tasklet is considered to be scheduled if it is alive, and in the scheduler runnables list or blocked on a channel.

int PyTasklet_Restorable(PyTaskletObject *task)

Returns 1 if task can be fully unpickled, otherwise 0. A tasklet can be pickled whether it is fully restorable or not for the purposes of debugging and introspection. A tasklet that has been hard-switched cannot be fully pickled, for instance.

Channels

PyChannelObject* PyChannel_New(PyTypeObject *type)

Return a new channel object, or NULL in the case of failure. type must be derived from PyChannel_Type or be NULL, otherwise a TypeError is raised.

int PyChannel_Send(PyChannelObject *self, PyObject *arg)

Send arg on the channel self. Returns 0 if the operation was successful, or -1 in the case of failure.

int PyChannel_Send_nr(PyChannelObject *self, PyObject *arg)

Send arg on the channel self, soft switching if possible. Returns 1 if the call soft switched, 0 if the call hard switched and -1 in the case of failure.

PyObject *PyChannel_Receive(PyChannelObject *self)

Receive on the channel self. Returns a Python® object if the operation was successful, or NULL in the case of failure.

PyObject *PyChannel_Receive_nr(PyChannelObject *self)

Receive on the channel self, soft switching if possible. Returns a Python® object if the operation was successful, Py_UnwindToken if a soft switch occurred, or NULL in the case of failure.

int PyChannel_SendException(PyChannelObject *self, PyObject *klass, PyObject *value)

Returns 0 if successful or -1 in the case of failure. An instance of the exception type klass is raised on the first tasklet blocked on channel self.

int PyChannel_SendThrow(PyChannelObject *self, PyObject *exc, PyObject *val, PyObject *tb)

Returns 0 if successful or -1 in the case of failure. (exc, val, tb) is raised on the first tasklet blocked on channel self.

PyObject *PyChannel_GetQueue(PyChannelObject *self)

Returns the first tasklet in the channel self’s queue, or NULL in the case the queue is empty.

void PyChannel_Close(PyChannelObject *self)

Marks the channel self as closing. No further tasklets can be blocked on the it from this point, unless it is later reopened.

void PyChannel_Open(PyChannelObject *self)

Reopens the channel self. This allows tasklets to once again send and receive on it, if those operations would otherwise block the given tasklet.

int PyChannel_GetClosing(PyChannelObject *self)

Returns 1 if the channel self is marked as closing, otherwise 0.

int PyChannel_GetClosed(PyChannelObject *self)

Returns 1 if the channel self is marked as closing and there are no tasklets blocked on it, otherwise 0.

int PyChannel_GetPreference(PyChannelObject *self)

Returns the current scheduling preference value of self. See channel.preference.

void PyChannel_SetPreference(PyChannelObject *self, int val)

Sets the current scheduling preference value of self. See channel.preference.

int PyChannel_GetScheduleAll(PyChannelObject *self)

Gets the schedule_all override flag for self. See channel.schedule_all.

void PyChannel_SetScheduleAll(PyChannelObject *self, int val)

Sets the schedule_all override flag for self. See channel.schedule_all.

int PyChannel_GetBalance(PyChannelObject *self)

Gets the balance for self. See channel.balance.

Module stackless

PyObject *PyStackless_Schedule(PyObject *retval, int remove)

Suspend the current tasklet and schedule the next one in the cyclic chain. if remove is nonzero, the current tasklet will be removed from the chain. retval = success NULL = failure

PyObject *PyStackless_Schedule_nr(PyObject *retval, int remove)

retval = success NULL = failure retval == Py_UnwindToken: soft switched

int PyStackless_GetRunCount()

get the number of runnable tasks of the current thread, including the current one. -1 = failure

PyObject *PyStackless_GetCurrent()

Get the currently running tasklet, that is, “yourself”.

unsigned long PyStackless_GetCurrentId()

Get a unique integer ID for the current tasklet

Threadsafe.

This is useful for benchmarking code that needs to get some sort of a stack identifier and must not worry about the GIL being present and so on.

Note

  1. the “main” tasklet on each thread will have the same id, even if a proper tasklet has not been initialized.
  2. IDs may get recycled for new tasklets.
PyObject *PyStackless_RunWatchdog(long timeout)

Runs the scheduler until there are no tasklets remaining within it, or until one of the scheduled tasklets runs for timeout VM instructions without blocking. Returns None if the scheduler is empty, a tasklet object if that tasklet timed out, or NULL in the case of failure. If a timed out tasklet is returned, it should be killed or reinserted.

This function can only be called from the main tasklet. During the run, main is suspended, but will be invoked after the action. You will write your exception handler here, since every uncaught exception will be directed to main.

PyObject *PyStackless_RunWatchdogEx(long timeout, int flags)

Wraps PyStackless_RunWatchdog(), but allows its behaviour to be customised by the value of flags which may contain any of the following bits:

Py_WATCHDOG_THREADBLOCK
Allows a thread to block if it runs out of tasklets. Ideally it will be awakened by other threads using channels which its blocked tasklets are waiting on.
Py_WATCHDOG_SOFT
Instead of interrupting a tasklet, we wait until the next tasklet scheduling moment to return. Always returns Py_None, as everything is in order.
Py_WATCHDOG_IGNORE_NESTING
Allows interrupts at all levels, effectively acting as though the ignore_nesting attribute were set on all tasklets.
Py_WATCHDOG_TIMEOUT
Interprets timeout as a fixed run time, rather than a per-tasklet run limit. The function will then attempt to interrupt execution once this many total opcodes have been executed since the call was made.

Soft-switchable extension functions

New in version 3.7.

Note

The API for soft-switchable extension function has been added on a provisional basis (see PEP 411 for details.)

A soft switchable extension function or method is a function or method defined by an extension module written in C. In contrast to an normal C-function you can soft-switch tasklets while this function executes. Soft-switchable functions obey the stackless-protocol. At the C-language level such a function or method is made from 3 C-definitions:

  1. A declaration object of type PyStacklessFunctionDeclaration_Type. It declares the soft-switchable function and must be declared as a global variable.
  2. A conventional extension function, that uses PyStackless_CallFunction() to call the soft switchable function.
  3. A C-function of type slp_softswitchablefunc. This function provides the implemantation of the soft switchable function.

To create a soft switchable function declaration simply define it as a static variable and call PyStackless_InitFunctionDeclaration() from your module init code to initialise it. See the example code in the source of the extension module _teststackless.

Typedef slp_softswitchablefunc:

typedef PyObject *(slp_softswitchablefunc) (PyObject *retval,
     long *step, PyObject **ob1, PyObject **ob2, PyObject **ob3,
     long *n, void **any);
PyStacklessFunctionDeclarationObject

This subtype of PyObject represents a Stackless soft switchable extension function declaration object.

Here is the structure definition:

typedef struct {
   PyObject_HEAD
   slp_softswitchablefunc * sfunc;
   const char * name;
   const char * module_name;
} PyStacklessFunctionDeclarationObject;
slp_softswitchablefunc PyStacklessFunctionDeclarationObject.sfunc

Pointer to implementation function.

const char * PyStacklessFunctionDeclarationObject.name

Name of the function.

const char * PyStacklessFunctionDeclarationObject.module_name

Name of the containing module.

PyTypeObject PyStacklessFunctionDeclaration_Type

This instance of PyTypeObject represents the Stackless soft switchable extension function declaration type.

int PyStacklessFunctionDeclarationType_CheckExact(PyObject *p)

Return true if p is a PyStacklessFunctionDeclarationObject object, but not an instance of a subtype of this type.

PyObject* PyStackless_CallFunction(PyStacklessFunctionDeclarationObject *sfd, PyObject *arg, PyObject *ob1, PyObject *ob2, PyObject *ob3, long n, void *any)

Invoke the soft switchable extension, which is represented by sfd. Pass arg as initial value for argument retval and ob1, ob2, ob3, n and any as general purpose in-out-arguments.

Return the result of the function call or Py_UnwindToken.

int PyStackless_InitFunctionDeclaration(PyStacklessFunctionDeclarationObject *sfd, PyObject *module, PyModuleDef *module_def)

Initialize the fields PyStacklessFunctionDeclarationObject.name and PyStacklessFunctionDeclarationObject.module_name of sfd.

Within the body of a soft switchable extension function (or any other C-function, that obyes the stackless-protocol) you need the following macros.

Macros for the “stackless-protocol”

How to does Stackless Python decide, if a function may return an unwind-token? There is one global variable “_PyStackless_TRY_STACKLESS”[1] which is used like an implicit parameter. Since we don’t have a real parameter, the flag is copied into the local variable “stackless” and cleared. This is done by the STACKLESS_GETARG() macro, which should be added to the top of the function’s declarations.

The idea is to keep the chances to introduce error to the minimum. A function can safely do some tests and return before calling anything, since the flag is in a local variable. Depending on context, this flag is propagated to other called functions. They must obey the protocol. To make this sure, the STACKLESS_ASSERT() macro has to be called after every such call.

Many internal functions have been patched to support this protocol. Their first action is a direct or indirect call of the macro STACKLESS_GETARG().

STACKLESS_GETARG()

Define the local variable int stackless and move the global “_PyStackless_TRY_STACKLESS” flag into the local variable “stackless”. After a call to STACKLESS_GETARG() the value of “_PyStackless_TRY_STACKLESS” is 0.

STACKLESS_PROMOTE_ALL()

All STACKLESS_PROMOTE_xxx macros are used to propagate the stackless-flag from the local variable “stackless” to the global variable “_PyStackless_TRY_STACKLESS”. The macro STACKLESS_PROMOTE_ALL() does this unconditionally. It is used for cases where we know that the called function will take care of our object, and we need no test. For example, PyObject_Call() and all other Py{Object,Function,CFunction}_*Call* functions use STACKLESS_PROMOTE_xxx itself, so we don’t need to check further.

STACKLESS_PROMOTE_FLAG(flag)

This macro is the most general conditional variant. If the local variable “stackless” was set, it sets the global variable “_PyStackless_TRY_STACKLESS” to flag and returns flag. Otherwise the macro returns 0. It is used for special cases, like PyCFunction objects. PyCFunction_Type says that it supports a stackless call, but the final action depends on the METH_STACKLESS flag in the object to be called. Therefore, PyCFunction_Call uses STACKLESS_PROMOTE_FLAG(flags & METH_STACKLESS) to take care of PyCFunctions which don’t care about it.

Another example is the “next” method of iterators. To support this, the wrapperobject’s type has the Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_STACKLESS_CALL flag set, but wrapper_call then examines the wrapper descriptors flags if PyWrapperFlag_STACKLESS is set. “next” has it set. It also checks whether Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_STACKLESS_CALL is set for the iterator’s type.

STACKLESS_PROMOTE_METHOD(obj, slot_name)

If the local variable “stackless” was set and if the type method for the slot slot_name of the type of object obj obeys the stackless-protocol, then _PyStackless_TRY_STACKLESS is set to 1, and we expect that the function handles it correctly.

STACKLESS_PROMOTE(obj)

A special optimized variant of STACKLESS_PROMOTE_METHOD( obj , tp_call).

STACKLESS_ASSERT()

In debug builds this macro asserts that _PyStackless_TRY_STACKLESS was cleared. This debug feature tries to ensure that no unexpected nonrecursive call can happen. In release builds this macro does nothing.

STACKLESS_RETRACT()

Set the global variable “_PyStackless_TRY_STACKLESS” unconditionally to 0. Rarely used.

Examples

The Stackless test-module _teststackless contains the following example for a soft switchable function. To call it use PyStackless_CallFunction(&demo_soft_switchable_declaration, result, NULL, NULL, NULL, action, NULL).

/*
 * SoftSwitchableDemo methods
 *
 * The purpose of this demo is to test soft switchable extension methods and
 * give an example of their usage. Otherwise the demo code is very simplistic.
 */

static
PyObject *
demo_soft_switchable(PyObject *retval, long *step, PyObject **ob1,
        PyObject **ob2, PyObject **ob3, long *n, void **any)
{
    /*
     *  Boiler plate code for soft switchable functions
     */

    /* Every function, that supports the stackless-protocol starts with this
     * macro. It defines the local variable "int stackless" and moves the value
     * of the global variable "_PyStackless_TRY_STACKLESS" to "stackless".
     */
    STACKLESS_GETARG();

    /* This function returns a new reference.
     * If retval is NULL, then PyErr_Occurred() is true.
     */
    Py_XINCREF(retval);

    /*
     * Optional: define a struct for additional state
     */
    struct {
        /*
         * If *ob1, *ob2, *ob3, *n and *any are insufficient for the state of this method,
         * you can define state variables here and store this structure in *any.
         */
        int var1;  // Minimal example
    } *state = *any;

    /*
     * Specific vars for this example.
     */
    int do_schedule = *n;
    if (*step == 0 && *n >= 100)
        *step = *n; // n==100: demo for calling back to Python

    /*
     * Always present: the switch, that is used to jump to the next step.
     *
     * Of course you are not limited to a linear sequence of steps, but
     * this is simplest use case. If you think of a state machine, the variable
     * (*step) is the number of the next state to enter.
     * The initial value of (*step) is 0.
     */
    switch(*step) {
    case 0:
        (*step)++;  // set to the next step
        /*
         * Optional: initialize the state structure.
         */
        *any = state = PyMem_Calloc(1, sizeof(*state));
        if (state == NULL) {
            Py_CLEAR(retval);
            goto exit_func;
        }

        /*
         * Code specific for this example
         */
        state->var1++;  /* This example is a bit simplistic */

        /*
         * Now eventually schedule.
         */
        if (do_schedule) {
            /*
             * The function PyStackless_Schedule() supports the stackless-protocol.
             * Therefore we may call TACKLESS_PROMOTE_ALL(). This macro copies the
             * local variable "stackless" into "_PyStackless_TRY_STACKLESS".
             */
            STACKLESS_PROMOTE_ALL();  // enable a stackless call
            Py_SETREF(retval, PyStackless_Schedule(retval, do_schedule > 1));
            /*
             * In debug builds STACKLESS_ASSERT asserts, that the previously called
             * function did reset "_PyStackless_TRY_STACKLESS". If you call
             * STACKLESS_PROMOTE_ALL() (or one of its variants) prior to calling
             * a function that does not support the stackless protocol, the
             * assertion fails.
             */
            STACKLESS_ASSERT();       // sanity check in debug builds
            if (STACKLESS_UNWINDING(retval))
                return retval;
            else if (retval == NULL)
                goto exit_func;
        }
        /* fall through */
    case 1:
        (*step)++;
        /*
         * Add more business logic here
         */

        state->var1++;  /* This example is a bit simplistic */
        /* now get rid of the state in *any, because it can't be pickled. */
        *n = state->var1;
        PyMem_Free(*any);
        *any = NULL;    /* only if *any is NULL, the state can be pickled. */

        /*
         * Now eventually schedule.
         */
        if (do_schedule) {
            STACKLESS_PROMOTE_ALL();  // enable a stackless call
            Py_SETREF(retval, PyStackless_Schedule(retval, do_schedule > 1));
            STACKLESS_ASSERT();       // sanity check in debug builds
            if (STACKLESS_UNWINDING(retval))
                return retval;
            else if (retval == NULL)
                goto exit_func;
        }

        /*
         * And so on ...
         */
        /* fall through */
    case 2:
        /*
         * Prepare the result
         */
        Py_SETREF(retval, PyLong_FromLong(*n));
        break;

    /*
     * Demo code for calling back to Python.
     */
    case 100:
        (*step)++;  // set to the next step
        /*
         * Here we demonstrate a stackless callback into Python code.
         * This test assumes, that result is a callable object.
         *
         * The API function PyObject_Call supports the stackless protocoll.
         * Therefore we may call STACKLESS_PROMOTE_ALL();
         */
        PyObject * args = PyTuple_New(0);
        if (!args) {
            Py_CLEAR(retval);
            goto exit_func;
        }
        STACKLESS_PROMOTE_ALL();
        Py_SETREF(retval, PyObject_Call(retval, args, NULL));
        STACKLESS_ASSERT();
        Py_DECREF(args);
        if (STACKLESS_UNWINDING(retval))
            return retval;

        /* fall through */
    case 101:
        (*step)++;  // set to the next step

        /*
         * Error handling for the callback.
         *
         * This needs a step of its own, if the callback supports the
         * stackless-protocol and fails.
         */
        if (retval == NULL) {
            assert(PyErr_Occurred());

            if (! PyErr_ExceptionMatches(PyExc_Exception))
                // it is a BaseException, don't handle it
                return NULL;

            /*
             * A very simple error handling: fetch the exception set it as
             * context of a new RuntimeError.
             */
            PyObject *et, *ev, *tb;
            PyErr_Fetch(&et, &ev, &tb);
            PyErr_SetString(PyExc_RuntimeError, "demo_soft_switchable callback failed");
            _PyErr_ChainExceptions(et, ev, tb);
        }

        break;

    default:
        /*
         * Boiler plate code: error handling
         */
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_SystemError, "invalid state");
        Py_CLEAR(retval);
    }

exit_func:
    PyMem_Free(*any);
    *any = NULL;
    return retval;
}


static PyStacklessFunctionDeclarationObject demo_soft_switchable_declaration = {
        PyObject_HEAD_INIT(NULL)
        demo_soft_switchable,
        "demo_soft_switchable"
};

Another, more realistic example is _asyncio._task_step_impl_stackless, defined in “Modules/_asynciomodules.c”.

[1]Actually “_PyStackless_TRY_STACKLESS” is a macro that expands to a C L-value. As long as standard Python® uses the GIL, this L-value is a global variable.

Debugging and monitoring Functions

int PyStackless_SetChannelCallback(PyObject *callable)

channel debugging. The callable will be called on every send or receive. Passing NULL removes the handler. Parameters of the callable: channel, tasklet, int sendflag, int willblock -1 = failure

int PyStackless_SetScheduleCallback(PyObject *callable)

scheduler monitoring. The callable will be called on every scheduling. Passing NULL removes the handler. Parameters of the callable: from, to When a tasklet dies, to is None. After death or when main starts up, from is None. -1 = failure

void PyStackless_SetScheduleFastcallback(slp_schedule_hook_func func)

Scheduler monitoring with a faster interface.

Other functions

Stack unwinding

PyUnwindObject * Py_UnwindToken

A singleton that indicates C-stack unwinding

Note

Py_UnwindToken is never inc/decref’ed. Use the macro STACKLESS_UNWINDING() to test for Py_UnwindToken.

int STACKLESS_UNWINDING(obj)

Return 1, if obj is Py_UnwindToken and 0 otherwise.

Interface functions

Most of the above functions can be called both from “inside” and “outside” stackless. “inside” means there should be a running (c)frame on top which acts as the “main tasklet”. The functions do a check whether the main tasklet exists, and wrap themselves if it is necessary. The following routines are used to support this, and you may use them as well if you need to make your specific functions always available.

PyObject *PyStackless_Call_Main(PyObject *func, PyObject *args, PyObject *kwds)

Run any callable as the “main” Python® function. Returns a Python® object, or NULL in the case of failure.

PyObject *PyStackless_CallMethod_Main(PyObject *o, char *name, char *format, ...)

Convenience: Run any method as the “main” Python® function. Wraps PyStackless_Call_Main.